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Technology has impacted the world of training and development and played a part in professional development among today’s workforce. But yet, it seems that many organizations do not take full advantage of what different technologies have to offer. As technology continues to influence formal and informal platforms for learning, let us explore different formats used and how they may impact the learning occurring in your organization.
Five Types of Technology Used in Workplace
Computer based Training
Raymond A. Noe describes computer based training (CBT) as, “an interactive training experience in which the computer provides the learning stimulus, the trainee must respond, and the computer analyzes the responses and provides feedback to the trainee” (2010 p. 303). In speaking with a fellow trainer last week, he explained that his company conducted this type of training to their new hires for pre service training. Trainers, are able to go into the learning management system where the computer based training resides, to see how well ( or not so well) the trainee has done in the training.
For training departments who only utilize an in classroom approach, this platform allows you to trainees to interact with trainees, and test learning to ensure participants are retaining information.
The Wonderful World of the Web
In training and development, most departments look to create and facilitate formal training only. Imagine the amount of time it will take an instructional designer to perform a needs assessment analysis, create a training, schedule classes on a topic surrounding the latest information on FASB that a staff accountant is curious about. Now imagine, the amount of time it will take for that same staff accountant to go onto Google and look up the same topic? Employees in the workforce utilize the world wide web to gather information quickly and have the ability to apply what was learned to their jobs pretty quick too. Depending on your organizations, IT security, surfing the web for quick learning opportunities may or may not be an option. But for those of you who have to ability to access information on the web quickly tools that are available through Web 2.0 have helped employees to collect information they need to know quickly. With social media and virtual communities, employees have the ability to learn from a vast group of people who may share the same experiences.
If you are in the field of training and development and you may not understand how tools in Web 2.0 may help you, think of this blog you are reading right now. Think of the community of readers who may leave a post or answer another person’s question. To really experience the sense of virtual community, I encourage you to get involved with sites like Yammer. ASTD has a group just of Instructional Designers. If you have any questions, want feedback on a course creation, or want a group to give you feedback on a particular vendor, this virtual community is full with active participants who will provide you with information that will allow you to learn and grow.
Online learning can be done either in an asynchronous or synchronous environment. Using platforms such as WebEx, GoToMeeting, or Vyew.com give the facilitator the ability to host live online learning. Once taboo and thought of as not interactive, vendors have added features to their sites that help make the online experience more interactive. WebEx has features that allow you to break large groups into smaller breakout groups to work on a group exercise, the facilitator has the ability to go into each breakout group and to check on each group’s progress. Vyew.com allows groups to access their webcam for web conferencing.
In the world of asynchronous learning, simulations and demonstrations have become interactive and allow learners to apply skills learned in a safe learning environment. Nursing students are able to use Second Life to conduct clinical rounds in a virtual setting before doing their rounds in real life, the use of avatars and story branching help sales staff and customer service reps handle difficult situations before being placed in their positions to ensure they are confident and prepared.
Mobile learning has become one of my favorite platforms for learning. I have yet to publish online modules that can be viewed on devices such as one’s iPhone but as an owner of an iPad, I use apps to learn on a continuous basis. My favorite app is ASTD’s magazine T+D. Each page is more than just an online version of the magazine, each page is designed as an online training. Graphics on the page are animated and are effective. Each graphic grabs your attention and is not overwhelming. Certain articles are narrated and give you the option to listen to the podcast instead of reading if you choose. Being able to access information quickly and when needed is not just important when sitting at your desk, but it is also the case when you are out in the field. IBM’s learning and development team created a mobile learning solution for their employees and found, “Finally, the study’s findings strongly suggest a direct, positive relationship between employee confidence level and self-perception of job performance” (Ahmad 2010 p. 50).
As an avid user of Apple products, I have become a fan of the iCloud. When researching what forms of technology is being used in learning, I was intrigued and wanted to learn more about how cloud computing was being used. Educloud , provides types on how different schools use cloud computing to enhance the learning experience for students. One example of cloud computing is being used is in Springfield Massachusetts. English classes at West Springfield High are using Adobe Buzzword. This application allows students to review other students work and have the ability to provide feedback to their peers. ( Smith , Haywood)
Noe, R. A. (2010). Employee training and development (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Johnson, L., Smith, R., Levine, A., and Haywood, K., (2010). The 2010 Horizon Report: K-12 Edition.
Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium
This week, I’m going to thrill you all with talking about the wonderful world of Needs Assessment. It’s one of those things that we know is necessary to ensure we are creating the right solution to satisfy a problem but yet it is a process that is often left out in the cold. Usually bullied to the back burner by its rivals Money and Time. The ironic thing is that most often organizations spend more money applying the wrong solution to a problem and even more time trying multiple solutions due to the first one not working. I can’t tell you how many times I have suggested the necessity of conducting a needs analysis and of course the age old response is ” We don’t have time. We have to roll out training NOW.” Then once training is completed, I follow up with stakeholders and revisit how we decided to roll out evaluations and collect data to see if the training really solved the problem. As I press the send button I can imagine the director or executive reading my message, yawning, and kindly pressing delete. So being that companies think it is just a tedious task that training and development departments use to deeem ourselves important or waste precious time, I wanted to explore what actually happens during a needs assessment. To help us explore this topic we are going to take one of my favorite airlines to demonstrate how to conduct an analysis and identify opportunities for training, so that you are comfortable doing the same in your own organization when making the case for training.
The Organization of Southwest Airlines
When conducting a needs assessment analysis, its important for you to know who the organization’s stakeholders are and which one these stakeholders you will have to make your allies for training and development. I would identify all levels of management, shareholders, and employees as stakeholders for Southwest. When trying to gain buy-in during the needs assessment stage, I would want to get buy-in from the highest level of management, the person who has access to the budget, and the person that employees may see as the leader who impacts them directly. It is imperative to get the buy-in from the managers, their attitude towards training activities sets the tone for employees regarding how important or valuable the activities are and where on their list of priorities the training activity should be. This is the first step to building employee support and possibly (but not always) enthusiasm for the training or training activities that may require employee participation during the needs assessment analysis (i.e. surveys, questionnaires, or focus groups). “The key factors for success are a positive attitude among peers, managers, and employees about participation in training activities…”(Noe, 2010, p.111) So roll up your sleeves, clear your calendar, and start meeting with all levels of management to gauge how they feel about training and development currently.
There are three sets of activities that should be conducted when performing a needs assessment which include an organization, person, and task analysis. When conducting an organizational analysis, you are “identifying whether training supports the company’s strategic direction; whether managers, peers, and employees support training activities, and what training resources are available” (Noe; 2010; p. 110). We are going to start this needs assessment by first conducting an organizational analysis. To get a feel for the organization’s goals we are going to start with the company’s mission statement.
To Their Customers
The mission of Southwest Airlines is dedication to the highest quality of Customer Service delivered with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and Company Spirit.
To Their Employees
We are committed to provide our Employees a stable work environment with equal opportunity for learning and personal growth. Creativity and innovation are encouraged for improving the effectiveness of Southwest Airlines. Above all, Employees will be provided the same concern, respect, and caring attitude within the organization that they are expected to share externally with every Southwest Customer.
By looking at the mission statement, I am able to tell that Southwest holds the following values in high regard:
- External and Internal Customer Service
- Employees Growth
- Stable Work Environment
So now comes the fun part! You now have to analyze to see if these items are really taking place and what types of training is currently happening to support these values. If there are any gaps you have now identified training opportunities. You can collect data by sending out questionnaires, surveys, hold interviews , or focus groups. The importance is to look at all levels within the organization. You are sure to find some gaps in perceptions so just taping one targeted audience for data will give you narrow perspective on the big picture.
This where you ,”identify employees who need training, that is, whether employees’ current performance or expected performance indicates a need for training.” ( Noe 2010, p.113)
You can use the information that you received from the organization analysis to identify if there is a particular targeted audience who you should focus on when it comes to suggested training. Once you have selected the targeted audience, look to see if specific individuals have any skill or performance gaps. Remember your alliances at this point will be management. If I were a training professional for Southwest, I would see if there are any gaps as an organization that hinder them from meeting their goals that are mentioned in their mission statement. So let’s say I gather information that states that due to customer service surveys, we are not meeting our goal of providing quality customer service, I would then see which groups are not meeting their metrics. If it’s the baggage handlers, I would then go to that group and sit with management to discuss if they have noticed any particular issues. Being that I have built an alliance, I would then ask if I could look at the specific individuals performance reviews, sit with the specific individual and gather feedback as well. Getting different perspectives will allow me to identify whether or not training is necessary for the person during the analysis.
Once you have completed a person analysis you then want to look at the set of activities an individual has to complete to perform their job. While analyzing the individuals I would also look at their job and what tasks are assigned to them to evaluate if there is anything in the process that hinders them from performing at the expected levels.
Once you have gathered all of your information, you are able to report back to the stakeholders your case for the need for training, in which areas, the business implications if not implemented, the targeted audience, and vendors selected for training if necessary.
You will now be armed with enough information that will seem substantial to your stakeholders. Now look at that, the very process that seems so tedious to others outside of training has the ability to give those same individuals a different perspective on training where they can appreciate the efforts and the results!
Noe, Raymond A. ;2010;Employee traiing and Development; 5th ed p.cm.
The last few blog posts have been around instructional design project management. My last post around IDPM will be focused on scope creep. The project team’s or client’s efforts to improve the end product of the project.
As instructional designers who have either lead a project or participated on a project, I’m sure you have all encountered scope creep sometime during your journey in training and development. Today, I will share my experience in this phenomenon in hopes that my experiences can help those who will have projects impacted by this common occurence in project management.
Just a Little Bit of History
In working for a previous employer, there was an identified need for the employees to optimize their customer service skills. I was asked to create the leaders version of the training and a grant would cover the design of our individual contributors. As the project approached kickoff, a meeting was held and it was decided that this project should be more than just training. The executives decided that there should a culture change and the training should support it. So now, let’s welcome the scope creep. The stake holders wanted to improve the ending result of the project. They wanted the results to be long-lasting and thought instituting a campaign around this initiative would be the answer.
What did this all mean? How would this impact the project? Well, now that this is a campaign there was more than just training involved. We had to join forces with the communications department, have buttons made to support the campaign, figure out how to roll out different activities to support the training. The laundry list began to grow and with all of the additional items being added, the true goals of the project began to be lost. Our original goal was to provide employees with the tools to better communicate with our customers and enable them to provide exceptional service.
If I Had a Magic Wand
If I had a magic wand and could lead the project, I would have stopped the campaign turned propaganda immediately. The real barrier was that employee morale was at an all time low, employee relations were stressed, and trust between management and staff were barely in existence. Creating a training program and a support system to ensure skills and concepts learned in the classroom would be practiced and supported once participants returned to the workplace was already a great challenge. Creating a campaign around it gave it a cheesy feel that I knew would not be received well by the staff.( A message extremely hard to sell to a room full of executives who choose to believe that none of the items mentioned above were happening).
Overall, non-value added activities that at the moment seem like a great idea should be assessed to ensure that scope creep does not occur.
Hello Fellow ID Project Managers,
One of the most important parts of project management is knowing how to accurately forecast budgets, resources, and time. I have decided to share two resources that I have found quite helpful.
The tech republic provides a breakdown describing different costs that impact a projects budget. If you need assistance assessing what may constitute as an external or internal cost, labor or non labor cost, feel free to read this website to gain more insight.
Next , I suggest a working template. This template provides workbooks and guidelines to help make decisions when forcasting your project’s budget.
As you complete your journey in forecasting budgets for your projects, I hope you find these resources helpful!!!
This week our class was given the task of going through a simulation where we received a message from a project team member via email, voice mail and face-to-face.
The message included a request from a team member for information from “me”. In the simulation, it seems that I am holding her up from being able to meet her deadlines being that her work is dependent upon the completion tasks on my end.
In the email , I could see how the message has the potential of being misconstrued and may even cause barriers within the team. With written communication two factors are missing that greatly impact effective communication, tone and body language ( non verbal communication). Without tone I was not able to identify whether the team member was upset or just merely relaying a FYI.
The second mode of communication was a voicemail message. This mode of communication was better than the email.The voicemail was the same message verbatim but I was able to depict from the sound of the team members voice that she was not upset. She was forthright by sharing that she needed me to complete my tasks to help her meet her deaedlines. Her message was sincere and I could understand the urgency in the need for me to complete my tasks. Being able to hear a person’s tone is important it helps the receiver of the message know how the person feels when they are relaying a message.
In the last message the simulation showed a video of the person relaying the message. This by far was the best form of communication. I was able to see the body language and facial expressions of the team member.
In regards to working with a project team, you may find there are instances when written correspondence and phone calls are useful but as a project manager make use of productive face time with the members of your team! It is the most effective mode of communication and will be of value when rallying your team!
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I’m currently taking a class where we explore the world of Instructional Design Project Management. For this week’s assignment, I was given the task of recalling when I worked on a project and assessing it in “post mortem”. For those of you who are new to the world of project management, post mortem is the review process where a project manager has the opportunity to assess what went well and what didn’t. Michael Greer shares,”It’s important for project managers and team members to take stock at the end of a project and develop a list of lessons learned so that they don’t repeat their mistakes in the next project “(Greer 2009). For this particular post, I am going to share my experience working on a project that involved a learnig management system implementation.
During the project plan stage, there was a plan to roll out an enterprise wide learning management system in three phases. Overall, the plan was conservative and the deliverables were realistic. Nonetheless, there were some obstacles during the project that were quite frustrating.
1. The organization where I consulted had a policy that required an RFP to be conducted after the contract was signed. Due to this policy, the project team found that there were some modules of the system that did not fit the business model of the organization. As a result, a large amount of time was spent on identifying issues and creating work around solutions. The lesson learned, perform a RFP prior to signing a contract to ensure the software meets the business need of the organization.
Overall it was gratifying to get the inital divisions onto the system and exicted about using it. Initially, the divisions were resistnt due to the communications that have announced the roll out of the learning management system for five years so this project raised concerns and doubt that this implementation was going to actually happen.
The project team was relatively small but each person had a clear understanding on their role in the project. The project manager outlined a clear project plan and ensured that all deliverables were timely.
To ensure that implementation would run smoothly, my job was to create a test environment to simulate what the targeted impacted group would experience as end-users. From the test, we were able to identify issues and find solutions with the vendor, or create the best alternate work around solution.
The feedback we received from stake holders and project drivers was of high quality. Everyone involved was comfortbale with giving feedback to ensure all concerns were addressed and all successes were celebrated as milestones.
So as you all decide to go and work on your projects. Take the time to review with your project team what went well adn what did not to ensure you do not repeat mistakes.
Greer, Michael; September 14, 2009; Project “Post Mortem” Review Questions; retrieved on 9/15/2011 from http://michaelgreer.biz/?p=161